Accommodation - تكيف

Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes the refractive power to focus objects various distances by altering the shape of the crystalline lens which alter the power of the lens. The power of the lens increase at near which allows the near objects to be focused on the retina while the opposite happens at distance.

Ametropia - خلل في الانكسار

An abnormal refractive condition (such as myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism) of the eye in which images fail to focus upon the retina.

Blepharospasm - تشنج الجفن

A repetitive involuntary sustained contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle, causing spasmodic closure of the eyelids. The person experiences squeezing and closure of the eyelids, uncontrollably blink, squint, wink, twitch or squeeze closed one or both eyes. The cause of blepharospasm is unknown.

Blepheritis - التهاب الجفن

A common condition that causes inflammation of glands and lash follicles along the margin of the eyelids.

Cataract - الساد

It is ocular opacity which is partial or complete, one or both eyes, on the normally transparent crystalline lens. In cataract the lens protein start to clump together and the lens becomes clouded, which scatters the light and prevents a sharply defined image to be formed on retina. As a result, vision becomes blurred.

Choroid - المشيمة

In the eye, a thin vascular layer between the sclera and the retina. The choroid supplies blood to the retina and conducts arteries and nerves to other structures in the eye.

Ciliary body - الجسم الهدبي

The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor. It is a part of the uveal tissue.

Cornea (corneo , kerato) - القرنية

The clear front window of the eye, which transmits and focuses light into the eye. The cornea is more than a protective film; it is a fairly complex structure that has five layers. Its refractive power is between 43-45 dioptor.

Crystalline lens - عدسة العين

An avascular, biconvex transparent elliptic structure that helps in focusing light rays on the retina. The lens is located within the posterior chamber, behind the iris and in front of the vitreous. Lens is made mostly of water and protein.

Ectropion - الشتر الخارجي للجفن

It is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. Ectropion is more common in older adults, and it generally affects only the lower eyelid. Artificial tears and lubricating ointments can help relieve symptoms of ectropion. But usually surgery is needed to fully correct the condition.

Emmetropia - العين السوية

The normal refractive condition of the eye, inwhich the rays of light are accurately focused on the retina.

Eyelid (palpebra, blepharo) - الجفن

The lid or cover of the eye, a movable fold of skin it contains secretive glands and muscle that can be closed over the eyeball or opened at will. Each eye has an upper and a lower lid. Also known as a palpebra.

Fovea- النقرة

In the eye, a tiny pit located in the macula of the retina that provides the clearest vision of all.

Glaucoma - الجلوكوما او زرق العين

Glucoma is a group of potentially blinding ocular conditions. In the broadest terms, glaucoma involves a study of the following: Intraocular pressure, Optic nerve head damage, Visual field loss, Drainage angle. Most common classification into two types Open angle glaucoma. Angle closure glaucoma.

Intraocular pressure - ضغط العين

The pressure within the eyeball that gives it a round firm shape and is caused by the aqueous humor and vitreous body. In the normal young adult population, the average of IOP readings lies between 15 and 16 mmHg.

Iris - القزحية

It is the coloured part of the eye with a thin, contractile, pigmented diaphragm and it is the central aperture of the pupil. The iris is measuring about 12 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness. It also has two types of muscles the sphincter muscle and dilator muscle. It is a part of the uveal tissue.

Lipid layer or the oily layer - الطبقة الدهنية

It is a superficial layer produced by the meibomian glands which are supplied by parasympathetic nerves. The arrangement of lipid molecules in plasma membranes. Each lipid molecule comprises a hydrophilic ‘head’ (having a high affinity for water) and a hydrophobic ‘tail’ (having a low affinity for water). The main function is to Prevents the evaporation of the other layers.

Mioses: pupil constriction - تضيق البؤبؤ

Constriction of the pupil of the eye when we look at near or exposed to bright light. It occurs due to sphincter muscle contraction.

Macula- اللطخة الصفراء

The macula is a special area in the center of the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye.

Mucus layer- الطبقة المخاطية

The Deep layer derived from the conjunctival goblet cells. It coats the superficial corneal epithelial cells. It contains mucins, proteins, electrolytes and water. Main function is to stabilize the tear film on the surface of the cornea.

Mydrasis: pupil dilatation - توسع البؤبؤ

Dilatation of the pupil of the eye as response for looking at distance or at dark or dim illumination. It occurs due to dilator muscle contraction.

Palpebral fissure - فتحة العين

The palpebral fissure is the elliptic space between the medial and lateral canthi of the two open lids. In simple terms, it refers to the opening between the eye lids. In adults, this measures about 11mm vertically and 33mm horizontally.

Phakic - الحالة الطبيعية بوجود عدسة العين

his denotes the state in which the natural crystalline lens of the eye is still in place.

Phoria - الحول الخفي

Any of various tendencies of the lines of vision to deviate from the normal when binocular fusion of the retinal images is prevented.

Photopigments - صبغات ضوئية

Any pigment, such as the visual pigment found in the photoreceptors of the retina, which is altered by the absorption of light energy.

Photoreceptors - مستقبلات ضوئية

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina. Photoreceptors convert light into signals that can stimulate biological processes.

Pseudophakic - زراعة العدسة الصناعية ة

The implantation of an artificial intraocular lens - usually after cataract surgery.

Pupil - البؤبؤ

A hole in the iris which is responsible of controlling the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil. The size of the pupil varies from 2 mm in bright light up to 9 mm in darkness, under normal illumination it is about 3 – 5 mm.

Retinitis - التهاب الشبكية

An eye disease that threatens vision by damaging the retina - the light-sensing tissue at the back of your eye

Sclera - البياض او الصلبة

The dense fibrous opaque white outer coat enclosing the eyeball except the part covered by the cornea

Tear film - الفيلم الدمعي طبقة الدمع امام القرنية

A liquid consisting of lipids, water, and mucin that coats the outer surface of the eye, lubricating it.

The crystalline (eye) lens -
العدسة الكريستالية او عدسة العين

The crystalline lens is an avascular, transparent elliptic structure that helps in focusing light rays on the retina. The lens is located within the posterior chamber, behind the iris and in front of the vitreous. It is composed of fibers that come from epithelial (hormone-producing) cells.  In fact, the cytoplasm of these cells makes up the transparent substance of the lens. The lens is elastic so it can change its shape and power so the light from various distance can be focus on the retina and this function is called is accommodation. .

Trichiasis - شعرة العين

It is an inward turning of eyelashes which causes annoying irritation which is made worse by blinking. The causes may be idiopathic or scarring of the lid margin such as that caused by chronic blepharitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and trachoma. Treatment: Epilation with forceps, Electrolysis and Cryotherapy.

Uveal tissue - الغشاء العنابي

It is the middle layer or the vascular pigmented layer and is also called uvea. It consists of the Choroid (the posterior uvea), the Ciliary body and the Iris the (anterior uvea).

Visual Acuity- حدة الابصار

It refers to the ability of the visual system ability to resolve fine details. Visual acuity test is the most common and the most important clinical measurement of visual function and measures the smallest symbol on chart that patient can identify at a specified distance.

Vitreous Humor- السائل الزجاج

It is a clear gel-like substance. The vitreous cavity occupies four fifths of the volume of the globe and is founded in the space behind the lens and in front of the retina at the back of the eye. The vitreous transmits and refracts light aiding in focusing the rays on the retina.



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